Continuing the theme of drama of diversity that runs through the Glasshouse Range which seeks to explore some of the species-rich, unique floras of the world, the Terrace Garden has been redeveloped to present the flora of New Zealand.
The islands comprising New Zealand are deeply isolated in both geography and in time. New Zealand was once part of the supercontinent, Gondwana, which began to break up around 167 million years ago, thus dividing and distributing plant families across the southern hemisphere. New Zealand separated from the Antarctic landmass between 130-85 million years ago; today some 2000km of the Tasman Sea lies between New Zealand and Australia, while the vast expanse of the Pacific Ocean lies to the east.
A rich and unique flora has evolved in this isolation, encouraged in its diversification by a wealth of different natural habitats ranging from frost-free lowland forests of sub-tropical plants to icy, mountainous regions supporting alpine plants. The flora is correspondingly rich in endemic plants, with 85% of the flora found naturally nowhere else in the world.
The new planting makes good use of the many niches and levels of the Terrace Garden. At the sunken heart of the Terrace Garden, a north-facing, shady and damp cove for ferns has been created, where we hope to install a water pump. Although few endemic New Zealand plants have showy flowers, the selection already planted up in the terrace closest to the Glasshouse Range does have a very distinct and exotic, in the sense of strange and foreign, feel to it. Close-carpeting mats of Acaena, with tiny, notched leaves and intriguing, burred spherical fruits held vertically aloft, are already creeping over the stone walls, while fountain bunches of the bright, russet orange grass, Carex testacea, glow against grey-leaved mounds of Hebe, covered with tiny, white flowers. Much of the material has been grown from seed, with thanks to the Wellington Botanic Garden, and is being bulked up in the reserve collections. Some borderline tender shrubs are brought outside for the summer months, including the glamorous Parrot’s Beak (Clianthus puniceus), with bright coral flowers, a member of the Pea (Leguminosae) family. It is now critically endangered and is now only known in the wild on Moturemu Island. Another example is the silver fern (Cyathea dealbata), a tree fern with delicate but very long fronds that, unusually, have a bright silver underside. The leaf is the logo of many sports in New Zealand and the emblem of its legendary rugby team, the All Blacks. Stands of New Zealand flax, Phormium cookianum, dominate the southern perimeter.