Juglans nigra (black walnut)

Walnut husks produce a brown dye which requires no fixative. Several phenolic compounds including juglone contribute to this. Juglone, or 5-hydroxy-1,4-anthroquinone, is itself used as an orange-brown dye in the food, cosmetics and textiles industries.
Juglone is an allelopathic compound, leached into the surrounding soil to deter other plants from growing close to the walnut tree and it also protects the tree against herbivores. However, some plants and insects are immune. Juglone can be used as a pH indicator and has shown some anti-microbial and anti-cancer activity.

Walnuts are rich in anti-oxidants and contain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. Their unique fatty acid profile is beneficial to human health, causing a reduction in cholesterol levels without significant weight gain.

Walnut wood was popular for making furniture in the late 17th century and is used today in the dashboards of prestige cars. Shells are ground to different grain sizes and used as a filler e.g. in paints and livestock feed. The flowers, leaves and stalks are used to make a Bach Flower Remedy to protect against unwanted influences.

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